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Expression of cloned genes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

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Published by Elsevier in New York .
Written in English

Subjects:

  • Gene expression.,
  • Molecular cloning.,
  • Genetic vectors.,
  • Gene expression regulation.,
  • Cloning, Molecular.

Book details:

Edition Notes

Includes bibliographical references and index.

Statementeditors Takis S. Papas, Martin Rosenberg, Jack G. Chirikjian.
SeriesGene amplification and analysis,, v. 3
ContributionsPapas, Takis S., Rosenberg, Martin J., Chirikjian, Jack G.
Classifications
LC ClassificationsQH450 .E955 1983
The Physical Object
Paginationxiv, 286 p. :
Number of Pages286
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL3171923M
ISBN 100444008195
LC Control Number83014125

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  Prokaryotic gene expression is primarily controlled at the level of transcription. Eukaryotic gene expression is controlled at the levels of epigenetics, transcription, post-transcription, translation, and post-translation. Prokaryotic gene expression (both transcription and translation) occurs within the cytoplasm of a cell due to the lack of a defined nucleus; thus, the DNA is freely . Gene Cloning in Prokaryotes Success in genetic engineering has been possible due to rapid development in gene cloning methodologies. It is essentially the insertion of a specific fragment of foreign DNA into a cell, through a suitable vector, in such a way that inserted DNA replicates independently and transferred to progenies as a result of cell division. Prokaryotic cells can only regulate gene expression by controlling the amount of transcription. As eukaryotic cells evolved, the complexity of the control of gene expression increased. For example, with the evolution of eukaryotic cells came compartmentalization of important cellular components and cellular processes. To understand how gene expression is regulated, we must first understand how a gene becomes a functional protein in a cell. The process occurs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, just in slightly different fashions. Because prokaryotic organisms lack a cell nucleus, the processes of transcription and translation occur almost simultaneously.

A shuttle vector is constructed by using bacterial origin of replication in a yeast plasmid which can be manipulated and cloned in bacteria. Finally they are transferred into yeast cells for the possible expression of eukaryotic genes (Fig. ). The gene for B-lactamase is an example of a prokaryotic gene that is expressed in yeast. Molecular Cloning Cloning allows for the creation of multiple copies of genes, expression of genes, and study of specific genes. To get the DNA fragment into a bacterial cell in a form that will be copied or expressed, the fragment is first inserted into a plasmid. Question: Compare And Contrast Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Gene Expression. Sort Each Characteristic Into The Appropriate Bin. Sort Each Characteristic Into . Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus. Therefore, the genes in prokaryotic cells are: a. all expressed, all of the time b. transcribed and translated almost simultaneously c. transcriptionally controlled because translation begins before transcription ends d. b and c are both true.

Introduction Gene structure. Genes contain the information necessary for living cells to survive and reproduce. In most organisms, genes are made of DNA, where the particular DNA sequence determines the function of the gene. A gene is transcribed (copied) from DNA into RNA, which can either be non-coding (ncRNA) with a direct function, or an intermediate messenger (mRNA) that is then.   A. The Difference between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Gene Regulation. Let's Recall an experiment described earlier and illustrated below. Results of this experiment provided the evidence that even very different cells of an organism contain the same genes. In fact, in any multicellular eukaryotic organism, every cell contains the same DNA (genes).   Not unless the gene was correctly inserted into a vector plasmid appropriate for the host cell. When we need to express a eukayotic protein it is cloned into a special expression vector that has prokayotic promotion sequences correctly positioned for transcription & translation.   The main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression is that the entire prokaryotic gene expression occurs in the cytoplasm whereas a part of the eukaryotic gene expression occurs inside the nucleus while rest occurs in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the regulation of prokaryotic gene expression mainly occurs at the transcriptional level while the regulation of eukaryotic gene.